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Validity and reliability in research design

Reliability and validity represent the effectiveness of the different methods applied in investigation. They are basically two crucial parts of the research. There is a direct relationship between reliability and validity. The reliability of the pr ocess used for measuring outcome is very much important in order to make the investigation to be valid. Reliability mainly is the level measures that are consistent. Whereas, validity represents the degree up to which different methods used produce accurate results.

It is very much essential for you to think about the reliability and validity of the study while making choice of research design or selecting different techniques for performing investigation. There is a significant difference between reliability and validity of the research:. Difference between assessment procedure of reliability and validity here is also a great difference between the way different types of reliability and validity are :.

It is always advisable to execute tests in a natural setting. Example If you are measuring the temperature of the water, the instrument used shows different result every time beside you have taken all initiatives to control the temperature, you close down the knob of gas after that also next time when measurement is taken thermometer represents the same result.

Therefore, it is assumed that the thermometer is not functioning properly and the measure is considered to be as invalid. For examplethe temperature of hot milk is measured in the same situation and thermometer also shows the same result every time, therefore the result can be considered to be as highly reliable. Types of reliability Things to be assessed Example Test-retest reliability It includes the measurement of consistency over a period of time.

This means that the measurement tool which you are using generates the same result when a specific test is repeated. Investigation performed for measuring the level of job satisfaction among employees. Employers were provided with a questionnaire where they have provided their responses. After a week the same questionnaire has been distributed and the same answers were given by participants, it shows high reliability.

For example, Different teachers check the cardiology Exam paper of one student. And every teacher has allotted different marks to students in a particular subject which represents low inter-rater reliability.

As every teacher has applied different criteria for checking the exam paper. Internal consistency It can be defined as extending up to which specific measurement is consistent in itself. For instanceInvestigator has design A questionnaire for measuring the level of motivation in employees. If in case there is no correlation between results it represents low internal consistency. As there is a powerful correlation between the above traits and level of motivation among employees which represents highly construct validity?

According to the experts, understanding is also important while judging the student English language skill. Criterion Degree up to which outcomes of specific measurement is related to other suitable measures of similar thought. Research Paper Writing Guide. Validity in Research — Overview and Comparison.

Reliability vs. Quantitative Inductive vs. Deductive Reliability Vs. Validity Internal vs.Reliability Vs. These are used to evaluate the research quality. Both these concepts imply how well a technique, method or test measures some aspect of the research.

validity and reliability in research design

While reliability deals with consistency of the measure, validity deals with accuracy of the measure. In a research design, especially in a quantitative research, reliability and validity are highly important. These two concepts are very closely related, although their meanings are different. The differences between the two are very subtle.

In a research, a measurement can be reliable but not necessarily be valid, however, if a measurement is valid, then it is considered to be reliable. Reliability of a technique, method, tool or research instrument implies how consistent it measures something. If by using the same technique or methods, same outcome is consistently achieved under similar circumstances, then the measurement is said to be reliable.

For example, if a thermometer displays same temperature of a same liquid sample under identical conditions, then the results can be considered as reliable. Thus, it can be said that reliability refers to the measure of consistency or stability of the test scores. Internal reliability of a test measures how well the test actually measures what it is supposed to measure. On the other hand, external reliability of a test implies how well the test can be generalized beyond what it is meant for.

The other types include test-retest and interrater. The test-retest reliability represents the consistency of a test measure across time and interrater is the reliability which represents the consistency of the measure across observers or raters. A reliability coefficient presents the measure of how well a test or a research instrument measures the achievement. The proportion of variance in the observed scores which is attributable to the actual scores is shown in the reliability coefficient.

The range of the reliability coefficient lies between 0 and 1. In maximum cases, the score of 0. A score higher than 0. Validity refers to the incidence that how well a test or a research instrument is measuring what it is supposed to measure.

A research having high validity implies it is producing the results corresponding to real properties, variations and characteristics of the different situations. Validity is more difficult to assess than reliability, however, it can be assessed by comparing the outcomes to other relevant theory or information. There are many types of validity in a research study. However, three major types of validity are construct, content and criterion.

Thus, it is evident that these two concepts are highly important for a research paper study to assess whether the outcomes are consistent and whether the measurement instrument is precise to what it is meant to measure. Home Blog reliability vs validity. Reliability Reliability of a technique, method, tool or research instrument implies how consistent it measures something. Reliability coefficients A reliability coefficient presents the measure of how well a test or a research instrument measures the achievement.

Reliability Vs. Validity: Difference & Types

Simple correlation between two scores obtained from same individual is also a reliability coefficient. This represents the test-retest reliability if the tests are conducted at different times.Hire a Writer Get an experienced writer start working on your paper.

Reliablity \u0026 Validity

Check Samples Review our samples before placing an order. Academic Library Learn how to draft academic papers. A researcher must test the collect data before making any conclusion. Every research design needs to be concerned with reliability and validity to measure the quality of the research. Reliability refers to the consistency of the measurement. Reliability shows how trustworthy is the score of the test. If the collected data shows the same results after being tested using various methods and sample groups, the information is reliable.

If your method has reliability, the results will be valid. This is considered as reliable results obtained through repeated measures. Example: If a teacher conducts the same math test of students and repeat it next week with the same questions. If she gets the same score, then the reliability of the test is high. Validity refers to the accuracy of the measurement. Validity shows how a specific test is suitable for a particular situation. If the results are accurate according to the researcher's situation, explanation, and prediction, then the research is valid.

Example: Your weighing scale shows different results each time you weigh yourself within a day even after handling it carefully, and weighing before and after meals.

Your weighing machine might be malfunctioning. It means your method had low reliability. Hence you are getting inaccurate or inconsistent results that are not valid.

Example: Suppose a questionnaire is distributed among a group of people to check the quality of a skincare product and repeated the same questionnaire with many groups. If you get the same response from various participants, it means the validity of the questionnaire and product is high as it has high reliability.

Most of the time, validity is difficult to measure even though the process of measurement is reliable. However, it was showing consistent results, but it cannot be considered as reliable. It means the method has low reliability. One of the key features of randomized designs is that they have significantly high internal and external validity.

Internal validity is the ability to draw a causal link between your treatment and the dependent variable of interest. It means the observed changes should be due to the experiment conducted, and any external factor should not influence the variables. The relationship between the study's situation and the situations outside the study is considered external validity. Reliability can be measured by comparing the consistency of the procedure and its results.

There are various methods to measure validity and reliability. As we discussed above, the reliability of the measurement alone cannot determine its validity.Published on July 3, by Fiona Middleton.

Revised on June 26, Reliability and validity are concepts used to evaluate the quality of research.

validity and reliability in research design

They indicate how well a methodtechnique or test measures something. Reliability is about the consistency of a measure, and validity is about the accuracy of a measure. Table of contents Understanding reliability vs validity How are reliability and validity assessed?

How to ensure validity and reliability in your research Where to write about reliability and validity in a thesis. Reliability and validity are closely related, but they mean different things. A measurement can be reliable without being valid.

However, if a measurement is valid, it is usually also reliable. Reliability refers to how consistently a method measures something. If the same result can be consistently achieved by using the same methods under the same circumstances, the measurement is considered reliable.

validity and reliability in research design

Validity refers to how accurately a method measures what it is intended to measure. If research has high validity, that means it produces results that correspond to real properties, characteristics, and variations in the physical or social world. High reliability is one indicator that a measurement is valid.

However, reliability on its own is not enough to ensure validity. Even if a test is reliable, it may not accurately reflect the real situation. Validity is harder to assess than reliability, but it is even more important. To obtain useful results, the methods you use to collect your data must be valid: the research must be measuring what it claims to measure. This ensures that your discussion of the data and the conclusions you draw are also valid.

Reliability can be estimated by comparing different versions of the same measurement. Validity is harder to assess, but it can be estimated by comparing the results to other relevant data or theory. Methods of estimating reliability and validity are usually split up into different types. The validity of a measurement can be estimated based on three main types of evidence.

Each type can be evaluated through expert judgement or statistical methods. To assess the validity of a cause-and-effect relationship, you also need to consider internal validity the design of the experiment and external validity the generalizability of the results.

The reliability and validity of your results depends on creating a strong research designchoosing appropriate methods and samples, and conducting the research carefully and consistently.

Validity should be considered in the very earliest stages of your research, when you decide how you will collect your data. Ensure that your method and measurement technique are high quality and targeted to measure exactly what you want to know.Issues of research reliability and validity need to be addressed in methodology chapter in a concise manner.

Reliability refers to the extent to which the same answers can be obtained using the same instruments more than one time. In simple terms, if your research is associated with high levels of reliability, then other researchers need to be able to generate the same results, using the same research methods under similar conditions.

According to Wilson reliability issues are most of the time closely associated with subjectivity and once a researcher adopts a subjective approach towards the study, then the level of reliability of the work is going to be compromised. Validity of research can be explained as an extent at which requirements of scientific research method have been followed during the process of generating research findings. Oliver considers validity to be a compulsory requirement for all types of studies. There are different forms of research validity and main ones are specified by Cohen et al as content validity, criterion-related validity, construct validity, internal validity, external validity, concurrent validity and face validity.

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Reliability vs. Validity in Research – Overview and Comparison

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validity and reliability in research design

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